Products» Anti-infective

Roviro® (Acyclovir)

  • Description
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Warnings

Acyclovir is converted to acyclovir monophosphate by virus-specific thymidine kinase then further converted to acyclovir triphosphate by other cellular enzymes. Acyclovir triphosphate inhibits DNA synthesis and viral replication by competing with deoxyguanosine triphosphate for viral DNA polymerase and being incorporated into viral DNA.

Oral:

>10%: Central nervous system: Malaise (≤12%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (≤2%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (2% to 5%), vomiting (≤3%), diarrhea (2% to 3%)

Parenteral:

1% to 10%:

Dermatologic: Hives (2%), itching (2%), rash (2%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea/vomiting (7%)

Hepatic: Liver function tests increased (1% to 2%)

Local: Inflammation at injection site or phlebitis (9%)

Renal: BUN increased (5% to 10%), creatinine increased (5% to 10%), acute renal failure

All forms: <1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abdominal pain, aggression, agitation, anemia, anorexia, ataxia, coma, confusion, consciousness decreased, delirium, desquamation, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), dizziness, dysarthria, encephalopathy, fatigue, fever, gastrointestinal distress, hallucinations, hematuria, hemolysis, hepatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypotension, insomnia, jaundice, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, leukocytosis, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, mental depression, myalgia, neutrophilia, pain, psychosis, renal failure, renal pain, seizure, somnolence, sore throat, thrombocytopenia, thrombotic microangiopathy, thrombocytosis, visual disturbances

Concerns related to adverse effects:

  • CNS effects: Neurotoxicity (eg, tremor/myoclonus, confusion, agitation, lethargy, hallucination, impaired consciousness) has been reported; risk may be increased with higher doses and in patients with renal failure. Monitor patients for signs/symptoms of neurotoxicity; ensure appropriate dosage reductions in patients with renal impairment (Chowdhury 2016).
  • Extravasation: Acyclovir IV is an irritant (depending on concentration); avoid extravasation.
  • Renal effects: Renal failure (sometimes fatal) has been reported. Dehydration, preexisting renal disease, and nephrotoxic drugs increase risk; ensure patient is adequately hydrated during oral or IV therapy.
  • Thrombotic microangiopathy: Has been reported in immunocompromised patients receiving acyclovir.

Disease-related concerns:

  • Renal impairment: Use with caution; dosage adjustment recommended. Neurotoxicity may be more common in patients with renal impairment (Chowdhury 2016).
  • Varicella: Appropriate use: For maximum benefit, treatment should begin within 24 hours of appearance of rash; oral route not recommended for routine use in otherwise healthy children with varicella but may be effective in patients at increased risk of moderate-to-severe infection (>12 years of age, chronic cutaneous or pulmonary disorders, long-term salicylate therapy, corticosteroid therapy).

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

  • Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Dosage form specific issues:

  • Injection: Use IV preparation with caution in patients with underlying neurologic abnormalities, serious hepatic or electrolyte abnormalities, or substantial hypoxia. Encephalopathic changes characterized by lethargy, obtundation, confusion, hallucination, tremors, agitation, seizure, or coma have been observed in patients receiving IV acyclovir.

Other warnings/precautions:

  • Adequate hydration: Maintain adequate hydration during oral or IV therapy.

OUR MEDICATIONS RANGE

  • Anti-infective
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anticoagulant
  • Antidiabetic
  • Antidote
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Infertility
  • Neurology
  • Oncology
  • Osteoporosis
Anti-infective
Anti-infectives is a general term used to describe any medicine that is capable of inhibiting the spread of an infectious organism or by killing the infectious organism outright. This term encompasses antibiotics, antifungals, anthelmintics, antimalarials, antiprotozoals, antituberculosis agents, and antivirals.

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Anti-inflammatory
Anti-inflammatory is the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling. Anti-inflammatory drugs make up about half of analgesics, remedying pain by reducing inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system to block pain signaling to the brain.

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Anticoagulant
Anticoagulants are medicines that increase the time it takes for blood to clot. They are commonly called blood thinners. There are several different types of the anticoagulant. Each type works at a different level on the blood coagulation pathway. Some can be given by the mouth; others can only be given by injection.

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Antidiabetic
Antidiabetic agents refer to all the different types of medicine involved in the treatment of diabetes. All these agents aim to reduce blood sugar levels to an acceptable range (called achieving normoglycemia) and relieve symptoms of diabetes such as thirst, excessive urination, and ketoacidosis (a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body cannot use glucose as a fuel source).

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Antidote
An antidote is a drug, chelating substance, or a chemical that counteracts (neutralizes) the effects of another drug or a poison. There are dozens of different antidotes; however, some may only counteract one particular drug, whereas others (such as charcoal) may help reduce the toxicity of numerous drugs. Most antidotes are not 100% effective, and fatalities may still occur even when an antidote has been given.

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Gastrointestinal
Occasional heartburn or acid indigestion can be treated with an over-the-counter antacid, such as Rolaids, Maalox, Mylanta, Tums, Pepto-Bismol, or Chooz. Your doctor may also include an antacid in your treatment regimen in addition to another form of GI medication.

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Infertility
If you’re trying to get pregnant and it’s not working, you may be exploring medical treatment. Fertility drugs were first introduced in the United States in the 1960s and have helped countless people get pregnant. One of today’s most common fertility drugs may be an option for you or your partner.

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Neurology
Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. ... Central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord.

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Oncology
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος, meaning 1. "burden, volume, mass" and 2. "barb", and the Greek word λόγος, meaning "study"

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Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis treatment may involve medication along with lifestyle change. Get answers to some of the most common questions about osteoporosis treatment.

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